Sandhi is the mutation of the final or initial letters of a word for euphony.Sandhi with verbs applies in any case when the form of a verb is being changed.Note that for the instrumental case, the genitive case, and the locative case, the case-termination first given is generally preferred.Kannada, as does English, uses adjectives and adverbs as modifiers. However, the adjectives 'ಆ' ('that') and 'ಒಂದು' ('one') can be used as the definite and the indefinite article, respectively.The first declension includes all masculine and feminine nouns that end in 'ಅ'; the second declension includes all neuter nouns that end in 'ಅ'; the third declension includes all nouns of all genders that end in 'ಇ', 'ಈ', 'ಎ', 'ಏ', or 'ಐ'; the fourth declension includes all nouns of all genders that end in 'ಉ', ಊ', 'ಋ', 'ೠ', 'ಓ', or 'ಔ'.Below are the 'standard' case-terminations, which are suffixed to the plural number markers to create the full case-termination in the plural.
No other verb form other than the crude form/root of a verb will end in 'ಆ'.
Thus the Kannada ablative literally translates to 'from/by the cause/point of the '. Note that the nominative-case and accusative-case forms of a noun are often in the colloquial dialect substituted by the crude base.
However, this 'ablative' form is not commonly used colloquially, and exists only for propriety—it is not a true case, serving only to provide a parallel to the Sanskrit ablative. There are, as in English, two grammatical numbers: the singular number (ಏಕವಚನ) and the plural number (ಬಹುವಚನ).
However, when a Kannada noun ends in a 'ಉ' that was already added for euphony at some original stage, that final vowel is eliminated when the noun is followed by a plural marker or case-termination that begins with a vowel.
For example, the Kannada word for ‘table’ is ‘ಮೇಜು', from the Persian ‘mez’.
As a Dravidian language, Kannada is not genetically related to Sanskrit, Hindi or any of the Indo-Aryan languages spoken in India.